Acedia, the Internet, and Social Media

The noonday devil is 24/7 these days. . .

Some time back, a younger friend and colleague of mine decided to close his Facebook account. You typically read announcements about these sorts of decisions in the very medium they are vacating.

It’s striking, isn’t it, that such a decision can be the object and occasion of considerable reflection? Would that have been conceivable fifteen years ago — leaving a virtual social network and all of its interactions behind? Perhaps so, but it would have been a decision narrated within the realm of speculative fiction. And now, it’s a practically conceivable — even for some pressing — matter, no longer just a sheer possibility, but a thought-over necessity at times.

His case and process of decision-making — narrated in an insightful and thought-provoking entry on his blog The Christian State of Life — might be viewed as both entirely comprehensible and yet rather unique, off the beaten track of normality, divergently following a path less taken.

You see, he was a seminarian, in training and under discipline — so, of course, he doesn’t have the time, he’s looking to higher things, living with one foot out of the secular world, detached from the worldly matters that we chatter about via the social media networks that seem to metastasize deeper and deeper into our lives, workplaces, relationships, perhaps even the cycle of liturgy and prayer.

Since perhaps it may not be apparent to some of my other friends and readers, I’m speaking sardonically here. Great authors with keen eyes for human experience, like G.K. Chesterton or Graham Greene — both laypeople who knew so much as novelists about the craft and calling of priesthood — long ago noted better than I can express how much interplay remains between what we typically distinguish and mentally sunder: religious and secular life.

My seminarian colleague — as thankfully so many seminarians and postulants, those exploring the surprisingly lengthy threshold between two seemingly separate but (not-so-)secretly interpenetrating existences — from all appearances, feels the impress and impulse of the same drives and desires as the rest of us, appreciates similar experiences, undergoes similar disappointments, feels the pull and pressure of friendship. . . and so not surprisingly, like the rest of us, engages with the rest of us through social media.

I’ve seen other, very secular (though self-describedly “spiritual”) friends reconsider the amount of time, thought, and attention they devote to social media — and sometimes even close up their Facebook accounts. So, there’s nothing necessarily religious about starting and following out such a line of reflection and reconsideration. In fact, there’s been news and discussion raising the prospect of social media being in some way addictive

Let’s Say Social Media is Addictive — So What?

In a piece some time back in Orexis Dianoētikē, I suggested this would require examination not only from social scientific perspectives but also by a deeper, fuller Virtue Ethics perspective. Maybe there is a need for developing a mode of the virtue of temperance or moderation, lest one fall prey not only to weakness of will when faced by the easy temptation to indulge, but even of skewing one over to the opposed vice, intemperance — within which one can no longer even recognize that one has slipped into a problematic state, course of life, pattern of practices.

There’s another vice, however — one which was not readily recognized by earlier virtue ethicists like Plato or Aristotle — that I think also bears some thinking about in relation to the internet, social media, and how we use it. It’s one expressed, though not named as such, in the worries my friend explores and comes to an admittedly partly painful decision about — which he framed in terms of themes from Neil Postman’s book Technopoly, familiar, however, before that work:

As I pick up my iPhone to check text messages, e-mail, facebook, twitter, etc: each time, I feel like I am obeying a master who has total and complete control in my life. This is partially because I have allowed the phone to have that sway over my life. But it’s not just the phone: it’s the internet, it’s the social-media, it’s even the e-mail. Everywhere I turn, I am surrounded by that which demands my time from me, asks me to surrender myself to it, and to give in completely to the ways of technology.

Interestingly, as he thought through a growing decision to leave at least a portion or province of the social media sphere behind, he raised a set of distinct though connected concerns:

I recently decided that, not only is Facebook a tool that demands far too much of my time, but, in the end, it really isn’t all that valuable.

The time that will be freed up simply from abandoning Facebook will give me to actually, you know, engage with people face to face!

These would on their own be worthwhile reasons to consider abandoning Facebook — or Twitter, or other social media as well. He starts driving towards the heart of the matter, though, with a third realization:

I have been reflecting on the many discussions I have had on Facebook and have realized this: the internet is a horrible place to communicate. To have a “discussion” on Facebook, for example, is impossible. The medium demands succinctness. It doesn’t allow for subtlety, nuance, presuppositions to be declared, etc. In short: social media doesn’t allow for dialogue. . .

I’d have to admit that I agree with this only qualifiedly — but admit how difficult it can be to have genuine, worthwhile, deep dialogue in Facebook, or again, a fortiori, on Twitter — how much when that happens it is a fortunate result of transcending the normality of the medium.

He’s right too, in pointing out that this problem is becoming a more and more pressing one, as social media infiltrates, even incorporates, more and more dimensions and areas not only in one’s own life but of those one is involved with, and our shared culture in general. He asks several other pointed sets of questions.

Why are we lack[ing] discernment towards all that is thrown at us? Why can’t we use the faculty of reason to actually properly judge whether something is good for us or not? Why do we presume that just because it’s new, it’s good?

Why do I need to fill my life with endless distraction?

The Vice of Acedia in the Internet Age

There is a temptation to which we are all subject, precisely by our human nature, which when it takes root and is reinforced through indulgence assumes the form of a vice the monastic fathers — those who purposively left the manifold distractions of the world behind, heading out into the desert, even to solitude — those who made enough progress in that life, struggling against themselves, to be able to formulate and pass on some advice identified as one of the eight principal vices.

They called it in Greek akēdia, which the Latins simply transliterated into acedia. What both of them meant by it — incidentally, it also gets called metaphorically, the “noonday devil” — is not anything foreign to our own experience.

It signifies a kind of restlessness, an inability to stick to a project or a plan, a condition of becoming or allowing oneself to be easily distracted, a lack of seeing matters through, of allowing tedium, boredom to creep in. For the monks, the greatest danger was, of course, that it would intervene between one and god, draw the monk away from prayer — and it could do so by proffering seemingly good motives.

In his Institutes, the influential monastic writer John Cassian, recounting the teachings of the fathers of Egyptian monasteries, draws vivid pictures not only of the behavior, but the lines of self-justification of those caught in an acediac grip.

. . . whenever it begins in any degree to overcome any one, it either makes him stay in his cell idle and lazy, without making any spiritual progress, or it drives him out from thence and makes him restless and a wanderer, and indolent in the matter of all kinds of work, and it makes him continually go round, the cells of the brethren and the monasteries, with an eye to nothing but this; viz., where or with what excuse he can presently procure some refreshment.

. . . he looks about anxiously this way and that, and sighs that none of the brethren come to see him, and often goes in and out of his cell, and frequently gazes up at the sun, as if it was too slow in setting, and so a kind of unreasonable confusion of mind takes possession of him like some foul darkness, and makes him idle and useless for every spiritual work, so that he imagines that no cure for so terrible an attack can be found in anything except visiting some one of the brethren, or in the solace of sleep alone.

Then the disease suggests that he ought to show courteous and friendly hospitalities to the brethren, and pay visits to the sick, whether near at hand or far off. He talks too about some dutiful and religious offices; that those kinsfolk ought to be inquired after, and that he ought to go and see them oftener; that it would be a real work of piety to go more frequently to visit that religious woman, devoted to the service of God, who is deprived of all support of kindred; and that it would be a most excellent thing to get what is needful for her who is neglected and despised by her own kinsfolk; and that he ought piously to devote his time to these things instead of staying uselessly and with no profit in his cell.

To be sure, there are other equally characteristic and troubling aspects to acedia — a kind of laziness, a sort of sluggishness, a condition of becoming easily tired or even exhausted, a state of inattention — which make it easy to understand how it, along the other vice of tristitia got eventually rolled into sloth, as the eight principal vices become the seven deadly sins. But it is the aspect of distraction — and most particularly of distraction with respect to the imagination and a shallow kind of communicativeness, sociability, that seems most striking to me here.

I’d like to suggest that social media — which, I stress, can certainly be put to very good uses — might very well, by their nature, click by click, also tilt us, weaken us, tend and trend towards temptations that eventually coalesce around the recognizable complex of acedia.

The ease and brevity of communication, the sheer ease of roving over profiles, pages, threads, the ability to reach across continents effortlessly, the possibility of accumulating “friends” or “followers” almost without limit and by suggestion — the more and more intuitive, almost world-forming features that mark the progress of a network — isn’t the flip side of these a nagging urge to check in, to see what’s being said, being floated, being posted? The sense of “existential angst” my young, committed, and perceptive seminarian friend admitted feeling at the very idea — let along the resolved reality — of giving up Facebook, can’t we all relate to that to some extent?

Perhaps what we need to think about, when we consider the darker side of social media from a virtue ethics perspective, is not simply phenomena of addiction, strengths of desires, or will-power depletion social scientists seem most interested in, nor even akratic weakness of will or intemperance, but that tributary of sloth, acedia.

Gregory Sadler is the president of ReasonIO, the editor of Stoicism Today, a speaker, writer, and a producer of highly popular YouTube videos on classic and contemporary philosophy. If you’d like to support his ongoing work, bringing philosophy to the broader public, he has a Patreon site where you can donate.

8 Mars : redonner aux femmes leur capacité d’agir et de décider, de ne pas subir et d’être libre.

La journée internationale des droits des femmes nous le rappelle chaque année : l’Egalité femmes-hommes est un combat de chaque instant, le chemin qui y mène ressemble à s’y méprendre à celui sur lequel est bloqué Sisyphe.

Simone de Beauvoir avait adressé en ce sens aux générations de militantes qui lui succèderaient une assertion que toutes celles qui portent le combat féministe peuvent vérifier en permanence « N’oubliez jamais qu’il suffira d’une crise politique, économique ou religieuse pour que les droits des femmes soient remis en question. Ces droits ne sont jamais acquis. Vous devrez rester vigilantes votre vie durant. ». Les droits des femmes sont en effet une idée neuve à l’échelle de l’histoire, ce n’est que très récemment que l’épithète Egalité a trouvé une déclinaison féminine, bouleversant des millénaires de patriarcat depuis seulement quelques décennies. Nous sommes un peu la « génération témoin ». Nos arrière-grands-mères n’avaient pas le droit de vote, nos grands-mères ont pris une à une les citadelles de leurs pères et maris en arrachant leur droit à l’autonomie juridique et financière, nos mères ont conquis la contraception, l’accès aux études supérieures, et notre génération, enfin, commence à partager le pouvoir économique et politique, même si le chemin est encore long, les résistances encore fortes, voire acharnées, comme le mouvement #metoo l’a encore confirmé, les volontés de remises en cause toujours aux aguets. L’actualité nous le prouve tous les jours.

Face aux replis identitaires, au réveil du religieux et son cortège de revendications cléricales, qui concernent presque exclusivement les femmes, leurs corps, leurs sexes, leurs droits, il est impératif de réaffirmer avec clarté et avec force les principes qui fondent la laïcité. La laïcité est tout autant un glaive qu’un bouclier pour les droits des femmes, et donc pour les femmes. Elle est le socle de l’humanisme républicain, le produit d’une histoire qui a permis à l’individu de se libérer des antiques tutelles où il était assujetti pour devenir citoyen et exercer sa souveraineté là où auparavant la souveraineté était confisquée au nom de Dieu. Puis les femmes ont conquis le droit d’être pleinement citoyennes et de revendiquer des droits spécifiques. Tout recul sur la laïcité, n’en doutons pas, sera un recul pour les femmes. La remise en cause de l’IVG est une revendication religieuse, les assauts contre l’extension de la PMA à toutes les femmes le sont de même, et nous ne pouvons que regretter les hésitations sur le sujet alors que le CCNE a récemment donné un avis positif à cette extension. A ce sujet, la MGEN a rappelé par la voix de son Président Rolland Berthilier qu’à l’occasion des états généraux de la bioéthique, elle a demandé le remboursement de la PMA pour toutes les femmes par notre système de protection sociale, au nom de l’égalité et de la solidarité, ainsi que la conservation des gamètes et la congélation des ovocytes pour les femmes qui le souhaiteraient. L’ouverture du champ des possibles que les progrès de la médecine et plus largement les progrès scientifiques permettent sont un enjeu pour le droit des femmes. C’est pour cela qu’il est également crucial que ces métiers, les métiers de la science, soient investis par des femmes, et nous devons faire la promotion de ces carrières auprès des filles dès le plus jeune âge, comme MGEN le fait en s’investissant dans l’association Femmes et Sciences dont c’est l’objet.

Ce partage de la lumière avec la seconde moitié du ciel constitue certainement le plus grand bouleversement de l’histoire et percute les profondes mutations à l’œuvre dans nos sociétés. Les révolutions techniques, technologiques, numériques doivent être pensées et conduites à l’aune de l’égalité femmes-hommes ou elles seront des régressions. Déjà, la part des femmes dans les métiers du numérique, qui sont aujourd’hui les nouveaux châteaux forts du pouvoir tant la donnée s’avère être l’or noir de ce siècle, a réduit de moitié en vingt ans, passant de 30% à 15%. Ce phénomène, contre lequel se mobilisent avec MGEN des acteurs privés et publics au sein de la fondation femmes@numérique, illustre à quel point la prévalence du patriarcat, là où s’exerce la réalité du pouvoir, n’a pas faibli. Il est de la responsabilité de tous les acteurs en mesure de le faire de veiller à ce que chaque pas accompli s’enracine durablement dans les têtes et dans les cœurs, à donner à chaque femme, à fortiori à chaque jeune fille, le cadre et les moyens d’être maitresse de son destin. Si en droit l’égalité a fait des progrès considérables, la bataille de l’égalité dans les faits se mène pied à pied sur le terrain. C’est à un travail d’éducation populaire et citoyenne constant que nous devons nous plier, sur tous les champs et à tous les âges. Sans cela, aucune transformation sociale n’est envisageable. Cette lutte se décline contre les stéréotypes de genre, contre l’ensemble des violences faites aux femmes, qu’elles soient symboliques, physiques, psychiques ou morales, sinistre galerie qui va des propos sexistes au meurtre en passant le viol et des salaires de 20% plus faible que ceux des hommes. En tant qu’acteur historique de l’éducation nationale, nous avons décidé avec l’ADOSEN, association de prévention MGEN auprès du public scolarisé de la maternelle à l’université, de produire en partenariat avec Educ’Arte une série de sept épisodes permettant aux enseignants d’aborder ces questions avec leurs élèves afin de déconstruire les stéréotypes. Déjà près de vingt cinq mille élèves ont été sensibilisés grâce à Stéréotype Stéréomeufs et une deuxième saison est en production. Cet investissement auprès des jeunes, nous souhaitons l’étendre auprès de toutes et tous et travaillons à cet objectif en étant partenaire de la Fondation des Femmes. Mais la lutte contre les stéréotypes ne doit pas exempter la promotion d’une politique de de prévention et de santé spécifique en direction des femmes. Car en santé aussi les inégalités sont criantes et nous sommes encore loin de l’effectivité d’un droit des femmes à un accès universel et égalitaire à la santé.

C’est en effet en travaillant à changer les mentalités au niveau individuel, dès l’école, au travail, en mobilisant la société que nous parviendrons à rendre solides les acquis, à enraciner l’idée d’Egalité, à faire émerger de nouveaux droits et à faire évoluer la société. L’éducation est la clef de l’Egalité femmes-hommes, celle qui permet de redonner à l’individu sa capacité d’agir et de décider, de ne pas subir et d’être libre.

The top 4 safety tips for using LPG Southern Downs Gas service

The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is one of the significant gas mostly use in resident, commercial and industrial places. The gas is useful and the majority of people use the gas for household purposes. Over 25 million LPG consumersuse gas in commercial purposes.

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The Southern Downs Gas service provides few effective tips to prevent gas leaks, explosions and fires, and carbon mono oxide poising. In Brisbane, the experts mentioned that thesefive tips will eliminate gas hazards.

The top 4 safety tips :-

  1. Installing an LPG based device

Cities like Ipswich,Brisbane adoptedLPG based devices. The Southern Downs Gas service suggests the domestic and commercial LPG Gas users install the device but you need to make sure that the dealers should come across with the authentic certification for installing the product.

2. Ask for the registration card

As mentioned earlier, the registration card is necessary for every part of the processing of installation. Not only the dealers should acquire the authentic certification but the users shouldget the LPG ID card. The card is generally used for the verification at the time of receiving the gas.

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3. Inspect the appliances

Before purchasing the appliances, check the product thoroughly. The Southern Downs Gas service always advise the users to check the productand consult a professional before installing the product. You need to be a little cautious with the appliance. You need to handle the appliance with great care. The professionals in Brisbane verify the durability of the appliances.

4. Check qualification

Coming to the qualification, the professionals should be qualified enough to rectify any sudden arising issues of LPG gas appliances. The qualified professionals of Ipswichalso check the LPG gas appliances whether the parts are degraded part or not. Their ID card should mention the skills which help the users to identify the right expert for installing the appliances.

Southern Downs Gas Service

The above tips are not enough.Often, you may notice the gas licking is a very common phenomenon. Therefore, what are the things you need to keep in mind? Firstly, keep the cylinder valvesturn it to the clockwise direction. It will undoubtedly help you to prevent thegas leak. In addition to that, take the guidance of the technicians to eradicate the carbon monoxide to save you and your family. Secondly, always keep the numbers of the fire department. 
 
 The final word :-

The Southern Downs Gas service offers valuable information about safetymeasurements of the LPG Gas services. It will be an excellent idea if you purchase the guidebook of the appliances for your safety purposes. The LPG gas offers plenty of services but precautions are necessary to follow up. It will surely help the users to operate the gas safely .

O Asteroide Musical — Flash Fiction

“Ah, não, a viagem vai ser tranquila”

Só esqueceram de avisar isso ao asteroide que caiu no meio do nosso ônibus. Mas, tipo, foi literalmente no meio do ônibus.

Sorte nossa que aquela idosa inconsequente atravessou a rua naquela hora.

Todos xingamos a idosa? Sim, nem me arrependo.

Mas ela nos salvou.

Por causa da inconsequência dela, o ônibus teve de parar e foi quando o asteroide caiu, com a plenitude de uma Rihanna que tropeça sabendo que ninguém vai dizer nada.

Caiu, bum, furou o teto sem muita sujeira, matou Mikhael e Lauriette, não explodiu nada, passou pelo piso do ônibus e foi descansar no buraco que ele próprio muito educadamente cavou.

Por sorte a velha atravessadora de ruas era surda e nem se tocou que um asteroide tinha caído em um ônibus. Se tivesse escutado alguma coisa talvez a pobrezinha morresse do coração.

Aí seria uma confusão pra tirar o corpo e tal. Ninguém precisava disso, honestamente.

Todos os passageiros continuaram olhando pra frente, como se nada tivesse acontecido. Até Januara e Archibaldo, que estavam bem atrás das vítimas. O sangue pingava de seus rostos, mas eles continuaram estáticos.

Na verdade, todos estávamos cagando de medo. Poderia ter matado qualquer um de nós. Graças às deusas a pedra só tinha atingido Mikhael e Lauriette.

Não me entenda mal, eu odeio culpar a vítima, mas é difícil defender esses dois. Em primeiro lugar, eles escolheram as cadeiras do corredor conscientemente. Numa boa, quem faz isso?

Em segundo lugar, vamos aos fatos individuais: Mikhael é um atlante e, como tal, ninguém gosta dele. Sou contra generalizações, mas todos que têm poderes de água são arrogantes, principalmente os que vêm de Atlântida.

E Lauriette é francesa.

Pouco a pouco fomos nos dando conta de que tava tudo bem. O ônibus não tinha sofrido nenhum dano irreparável, a senhora só levou 10 horas para atravessar a rua fora da faixa, ninguém tinha se ferido e conseguimos nos livrar daqueles dois sem sujar as mãos, como tínhamos planejado.

Só Januara e Archibaldo que sujaram os rostos.

Pobrezinhos.

— Pessoal, sem pânico — comecei a falar. — Vou conversar com o motorista, mas acho que vamos conseguir chegar à Arena sem problemas.

Sereena levantou a mão.

— Diretora?…
 — Sim?
 — Eu acho que temos um problema.
 — Pelo amor das deusas, fale logo, druida.
 — Mikhael e Lauriette… — Ela apontou para os meio-corpos que jaziam ao lado do buraco do asteroide.
 — O que é que tem?
 — É que…
 — É o cheiro? Eles já estão fedendo?

Todos balançaram a cabeça, negativamente.

— Não, é que…
 — Gente, o que é isso? Alguém dê um lenço a esses dois — apontei para Januara e Archibaldo. — Que horror ter o resto deles na cara.
 — Diretora…
 — Fale logo, mulher!
 — Quem vai cantar a parte deles no show?
 — Como a…?

E foi aí que entendemos.

Pouco a pouco as expressões foram mudando de tédio para horror.

O mais puro horror.

Mikhael e Lauriette tinham uma parte ínfima em nosso musical. Eles faziam 2 garçons descartáveis na cena do restaurante, e cantavam um dueto péssimo no meio da música principal. Era uma participação tão desimportante que ninguém, nem eu, sabia como era.

Mas sem esse dueto a cena não funcionava.

— Pelas deusas… — balbuciei.

O silêncio surgiu, pelo menos até Jacquelino começar a chorar. Em pouco tempo, todos gritavam e brigavam e desmaiavam.

Olhei com ódio para os dois cadáveres que pareciam sorrir para mim.

Numa última cartada, conseguiram estragar tudo.

E a vida afundou em caos.

Build a European Language Detector from Scratch in Less than a Day!

Language detection is a well developed area of Natural Language Processing (NLP) in machine learning and hence there are several algorithms and APIs available in literature and on-line. However, running some of these algorithms on a low memory and speed CPU can offer its fair share of challenges especially for developers trying to build their own or modify existing codes. I have been able to put together a very simple yet efficient algorithm that works pretty well and has very high accuracy. Follow through to the end and you will have a language detector up and running in less than a day and what’s more, it is computationally inexpensive.

Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

ALGORITHM

Here, I will give a brief overview of the algorithm and delve into the code in the subsequent section. The algorithm employs the use of data from the European Parliament Proceedings Parallel Corpus 1996–2011on Philipp Koehn’s web page. A zip file of the data can be downloaded from here. The data is extracted but comes in several txt files per language, therefore, a for loop is used to compile and convert all txt files to one csv file for each language.

The next chunk of code deals with preprocessing the data to remove special characters and digits from the dataset. Next a histogram of the number of sentences for each language is drawn. The dataset is then split into train-test and run through a scikit-learn pipeline with a countVectorizer, tfidfTransformer to transform the texts to arrays and trained with a logistic regression model. Model accuracy and confusion matrix is outputted.

Photo by Caspar Camille Rubin on Unsplash

CODE

We take a look at the code from A-Z, a link to the notebook is provided at the end of this blog. The first chunk of code deals with importing the required libraries and modules for data processing …

The next lines of code deals with the extraction of data from .tar file …

The data is extracted into a folder named txt, in this folder are folders for each language labeled by abbreviations of the languages. Each language folder has several txt files, so we create a dictionary which has language names as keys and language abbreviations as values.

Replace path with where extracted file on your PC is. A list of all folders in the txt folder is saved as directories. Next are the lines of code to compile and convert all txt files to one csv file for each language and this takes approximately 2 hours to complete

Lines 16 to 19 is for handling decoding errors that arise for certain languages. Next lines deals with data preprocessing, it takes approximately 10 minutes to complete.

However, for the training, only 70,000 sentences were chosen for each language due to memory restriction. A quick look at the data is done here by plotting a histogram of all data distributions

The dataset is shuffled and split into train and test, which is run through a pipeline involving vectorization,Tfidf transformation into arrays and training of the dataset on a logistic regression model.

It can be seen here that it took about an hour and 10 minutes to train the model on 70,000 sentences for 21 languages at an accuracy of 99.6%! To check for the true and false positives and negatives, I run a confusion matrix for the predictions against the true values and it could be seen below that the model performed quite well in terms of the true and false positives and negatives.

The code can be found here, share your thoughts and experiences after running this code in the comments section below. Thanks

Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih

Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih

Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih — Keputihan adalah masalah yang menyerang banyak wanita. Dan seperti terjadinya dapat ditentukan oleh beberapa penyebab, rekomendasi pertama dan utama adalah untuk berkonsultasi dengan dokter kandungan.

Mengalami infeksi di bagian mana pun dari tubuh selalu tidak menyenangkan, dan ketika penyakit ini mempengaruhi daerah yang lebih sensitif, seperti infeksi vagina, rasa tidak nyaman bahkan bisa lebih besar. Salah satu masalah yang paling umum dalam operasi ginekologi infeksi vaginosis bakteri yang disebabkan oleh kuman, yang, dengan tidak adanya bakteri pelindung mengajukan dan berkembang di vagina. — Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih

Keputihan (flour albus) adalah cairan yang berlebihan yang keluar dari vagina. Keputihan bisa bersifat fisiologis (dalam keadaan normal) namun bisa juga bersifat patologis (karena penyakit). Dan keputihan tidak mengenal batasan usia. Berapa pun usia seorang wanita, bisa terkena keputihan.

Keputihan adalah nama yang diberikan untuk cairan atau lendir keluar dari vagina. Konsistensi keputihan dapat berkisar dari tipis dan berair hingga keputihan yang tebal dan kental. Cairan ini bisa jernih, putih, kuning, berdarah, atau berbagai warna diantaranya. Hal ini juga dapat bervariasi dalam jumlah dari hampir tak terlihat dan tidak terasa. — Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih

Keputihan sebaiknya diobati sejak dini, begitu timbul gejala. Karena keputihan kalau sudah kronis dan berlangsung lama akan lebih susah diobati. Selain itu kalau keputihan yang dibiarkan bisa merembet ke rongga rahim kemudian kesaluran indung telur dan sampai ke indung telur dan akhirnya ke dalam rongga panggul. Tidak jarang wanita yang menderita keputihan yang kronis (bertahun-tahun) bisa menjadi mandul bahkan bisa berakibat kematian. “Berakibat kematian karena bisa mengakibatkan terjadinya kehamilan di luar kandungan. Kehamilan di luar kandungan, terjadi pendarahan, mengakibatkan kematian pada ibu-ibu. Selain itu yang harus diwaspadai, keputihan adalah gejala awal dari kanker mulut rahim. Jadi jangan sampai terlambat untuk tahu apa yang menjadi penyebab keputihan. Yang pasti jangan anggap remeh keputihan. Supaya kamu tidak menyesal di belakang hari nanti, karena akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh penyakit keputihan ini.

Keputihan Fisiologis

Adalah keputihan yang umum terjadi pada wanita pada semua usia, Biasanya terjadi pada masa subur, juga sebelum dan sesudah menstruasi. Kadang saat itu ada lendir yang berlebihan, itu normal. Dan biasanya tidak gatal dan tidak berbau.

Keputihan Patologis

Adalah keputihan yang terjadi karena infeksi pada vagina, adanya benda asing dalam vagina atau karena keganasan. Infeksi bisa sebagai akibat dari bakteri, jamur atau protozoa. Ciri-ciri keputihan patologis , warnanya tidak seperti lendir. “Keputihan patologis biasanya, warnanya seperti kepala susu, atau hijau kekuning-kuningan, atau bahkan bercampur darah, kalau keputihannya sudah menjadi penyakit. Ketika keputihan sudah menjadi penyakit, wanita yang menderita keputihan patologis ini akan merasa gatal pada daerah vagina, dan lendir yang keluar berbau, sehingga menimbulkan rasa yang tidak nyaman. — Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih

Ciri-ciri keputihan tidak normal adalah:

  • Cairannya kental
  • Biasanya berwarna putih susu, kuning, kehijauan atau keabu-abuan
  • Cairan terkadang lengket
  • Menimbulkan bau tidak sedap
  • Menyebabkan gatal
  • Jumlah cairan banyak dan akan meninggalkan bercak pada pakaian dalam

Jika Anda mendapati ciri-ciri keputihan ini, saran terbaik kami adalah segera periksa ke dokter atau ahli kesehatan. Terlebih lagi jika keputihan yang Anda alami sudah sering terjadi. Seringkali wanita mencoba mengobati sendiri keputihan dengan minum obat, jamu atau memakai sabun pembersih kewanitaan yang justru bisa memperparah kondisi keputihan.

Penyebab Penyakit Keputihan

1. Infeksi bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis adalah infeksi pada vagina yang disebabkan oleh bakteri anaerob yang tidak seimbang. Vagina memiliki dua bakteri, bakteri baik disebut lactobacilli, bakteri jahat disebut anaerob. Ketika terjadi bacterial vaginosis, terjadi peningkatan pada bakteri anaerob. Hal ini menyebabkan keputihan menjadi kental, berbau menyengat dan amis, meskipun terkadang infeksi ini tidak menunjukkan beberapa gejala. Perempuan yang melakukan seks oral dan berhubungan seks dengan berganti-ganti pasangan dapat berisiko tinggi terkena penyakit ini.

2. Trichomoniasis

trikomoniasis disebabkan oleh protozoa (organisme bersel tunggal) dan menyebabkan keputihan berwarna kuning, hijau, dan berbau menyengat. Selain itu, peradangan dan gatal merupakan gejala yang biasa muncul, meskipun beberapa orang yang terkena infeksi mungkin tidak mengalami gejala tersebut. Penularan infeksi ini bisa disebabkan oleh kontak seksual dan handuk yang dipakai bergantian.

3. Infeksi jamur

Infeksi ini merupakan infeksi fungal yang mengakibatkan keputihan berwarna putih, seperti keju yang lembut, selain itu juga menimbulkan rasa gatal, sensasi panas dan terbakar. Kehadiran jamur di vagina adalah hal yang normal, namun ketika jamur berkembang tidak terkendali itulah yang tidak normal. Beberapa hal yang dapat menyebabkan infeksi ini adalah:

  • Stres
  • Diabetes
  • Penggunaan obat kontrasepsi
  • Kehamilan
  • Antibiotik

4. Gonore dan klamidia

Keduanya adalah termasuk penyakit menular seksual. Salah satu gejala yang ditimbulkan dari penyakit tersebut keputihan berwarna kuning, kehijau-hijauan dan kental.

5. Penyakit radang panggul

Infeksi ini ditularkan lewat kontak seksual. Bakteri menyebar di dalam vagina hingga ke organ reproduksi, sehingga menghasilkan keputihan yang berat, dan berbau busuk.

6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) atau kanker serviks

Penyakit ini juga disebabkan oleh infeksi, biasanya juga disebarkan lewat kontak seksual, yang memicu terjadinya kanker rahim. Gejalanya dapat berupa keputihan berwarna cokelat dan berbau tidak enak, terkadang disertai pendarahan. — Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih

Berikut adalah beberapa tips untuk mencegah infeksi vagina yang dapat memicu keluarnya cairan keputihan yang tidak normal.

  1. Menjaga kebersihan organ reproduksi dengan membersihkannya secara teratur menggunakan sabun dan air hangat.
  2. Jangan gunakan sabun yang diberi pewangi atau cairan khusus pembersih vagina yang disebut douche
  3. Setelah selesai buang air kecil atau buang air besar, selalu bersihkan vagina secara menyeluruh agar mencegah bakteri masuk ke dalam dan menyebabkan infeksi.
  4. Kenakan celana dalam berbahan 100% katun dan sebaiknya jangan kenakan pakaian yang terlalu ketat.

Baca Juga : Obat Keputihan Alami Yang Paling Manjur

Menjaga kebersihan organ reproduksi Anda merupakan langkah penting untuk mencegah terjadinya keputihan yang tidak wajar. Jadi mulai dari sekarang sebaiknya Anda lebih cermat dalam memperhatikan kehigienisan pribadi. — Obat Keputihan Gatal Dan Perih

Apabila anda menginginkan pengobatan penyakit keputihan dengan paket obat keputihan yang terbuat dari ektrak tanaman berkhasiat, sehingga aman dikonsumsi tanpa efek samping, Paket Keputihan De Nature Indonesia Sudah terdaftar Di Badan POM dan bersertifikat halal MUImenjadikan anda tidak ragu untuk melakukan pengobatan dengan produk kami.

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Putting your Poshmark Sales Data into Action

Which states have you sold to?

Poshmark last year (2018) released the My Sales Report feature which enabled users to quickly download an Excel spreadsheet of every sale they’ve ever made.

How do you analyze data quickly, without reading through every line?

Recently I took a course on Tableau (which has a free public version) where I decided to use my Poshmark data, just to see what could be achieved. Something simple thing I’ve seen a lot of Poshers do is create a map of which states they have shipped too; normally on paper just for fun.

Tableau provides a very simple way to achieve and monitor which are your most popular states. Let’s take a look into how:

  1. Download your sales report
  2. Import the Excel spreadsheet into Tableau

You’re now going to notice that within the Data Source pane, the data we just imported is not displaying well.

3. Clean the data with the Data Interpreter on the left panel, as shown below:

Software Doesn’t always get it right, well at least for the data I gave it!

4. Check through the headings and make sure they look correct

5. Switch tabs to “Sheet 1”

6. Select “Buyer State” and drag it into the centre pane of Sheet 1

Now you’re going to see a lot of dots just appear! These are the states you’ve sold to.

7. Switch the view to be Maps in the “Show me” panel if you want to see the whole state colored and not a dot.

Giving the Map more Context

To add more context we can add Net Earnings.

  1. Go to the Measures panel on the left hand side and drag over Net Earnings

This enables us to see how much we’ve made in sales from each state after Poshmarks fees!

Looks like I only got $2 from a sale in WA oops! I hope you’ve had better luck.

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Jual Obat Forex Asli Pembesar Alat Vital Terbaik Di Tangerang— 087886333808 | Medium

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Is the Crisis on the Southern Border a National Emergency?

President Trump recently declared a national emergency to get funding for his proposed border wall between the U.S. and Mexico.

Recently, President Trump declared a national emergency in order to fund his much-promised wall on the southern border between the United States and Mexico. This is arguably the biggest political news to come out since the government shutdown that occurred this past December and January. People on both sides of the political spectrum have expressed their views on the matter. It is important to analyze how politicians, as well as, the general public react to certain situations like these. Below, I have collected “artifacts” such as tweets, articles, and videos to give readers a general understanding of how people are reacting to this controversy.

Before analyzing both sides of the debate, it is important that we identify what a national emergency is, how it is declared, and what this specific declaration compares to other national emergencies in American History. Below is an article written by the Washington Post that gives some answers to these questions many people have.

Analysis | What exactly is a national emergency? Here's what that means and what happens next.
February 15 After teasing it for months, President Trump is officially declaring the U. S-Mexico border a "national…www.washingtonpost.com

The article explains how the declaration of national emergencies is completely in control of the president. The article also explains how a president goes about declaring these emergencies. It says, “A president must issue a written and signed declaration that specifies the specific emergency powers he plans to rely on and invoke.” This shows it is quite simple for a president to use these powers.

Many citizens seem to believe that this specific national emergency carries more weight than previous national emergencies so it is important that they know what past national emergencies have been declared for. The article states that “The vast majority have been economic sanctions against foreign actors whose activities pose a national threat.” One idea you can take from this article is that this national emergency is different than the majority of national emergencies because it is not due to economic sanctions and or foreign powers.

Since this national emergency was declared by one person in Washington, many politicians have expressed their feelings on what they believe about the “emergency” on the southern border.

Source: Twitter

Lindsey Graham, a Senator from South Carolina says that he backs the President’s decision to use executive powers to obtain border wall funding. This is not much of a surprise, as Senator Graham has been known to be one of President Trump’s loyal supporters since he took office.

As expected, many politicians oppose President Trump’s declaration as well.

Source: Twitter

Letitia James, the New York State Attorney General, says that this National Emergency does not exist and, therefore, declaring one is immoral and illegal. It is also crucial to point out that she has joined 15 other Attorney Generals in filing a lawsuit against the President’s decision.

The lawsuits against the President over this matter have become more relevant in the past week, as more lawsuits, as well as, votes are taking place to retract President Trump’s order.

It is obvious that those in Washington would have quite partisan feelings about this declaration, but it is not as obvious how the general public thinks of it.

Poll: 6-In-10 Disapprove Of Trump's Declaration Of A National Emergency
subscribe to NPR Politics Podcast podcast More than 6-in-10 Americans disapprove of President Trump's decision to…www.npr.org

NPR recently conducted a poll of 807 U.S. adults and wrote an article breaking down the results.

Source: National Public Radio

As the graphic shows, over 60% of the U.S. population disapproves of the President’s declaration of a National Emergency. These numbers are significant, because they show that a large majority of the U.S. population disapprove of the President’s actions. It is also important to point out that this is still a partisan issue, however. 94% of Democrats disapprove of the National Emergency, while only 12% of Republicans believe the same.

These numbers leave us with the question “why do over 60% of Americans disapprove if Republicans and Democrats are still polarized in their beliefs?” The poll shows that 63% of Independents disapprove, while only 33% approve. This is most likely the most likely reason as to why the majority of Americans disapprove of the President’s decision. Independents are usually a group that goes 50/50 on matters like these, but not in this case.

Recently Democrats have offered a resolution to block President Trump’s attempt to get border wall security via a National Emergency. This article by USA Today breaks the logistics of this.

Democrats prepare resolution to try to stop Trump's declaration of an emergency at the border
CLOSE WASHINGTON – House Democrats will initiate action Friday to try to block President Donald Trump's declaration of…www.usatoday.com

The article explains that the plan to block President Trump’s National Emergency will most likely make it through the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives, but will have trouble making it through a Republican Senate. It is understood that some Republican senators have said they are against the border wall funding, but it is not understood whether they are going to vote that way.

Since this article has been published, the U.S. House of Representatives has taken a vote on the matter. Representatives have voted to stop Trump’s declaration. Now, it must go through the Senate.

Win or Lose, Vote on National Emergency Will Be Costly for Trump
"I advised the president not to take this route. But he's decided to do that," Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell…www.usnews.com

This article by U.S. News and World Report, explains how the senate vote is expected to go next week and what this means for Trump. It is apparent that four GOP Senators will vote against Trump’s border wall. This means that this will be the first time Trump has really done something that even Republicans believe is crossing the line.

McConnell says Trump likely to veto to resolution to end national emergency
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell told reporters that President Trump would probably to veto a joint resolution to…www.cbsnews.com

Many people expect President Trump to use a Presidential veto to get the Border Wall funding he desperately pursues. This article by CBS News gives background on Presidential vetos and explains how this veto would compare to ones declared in the past.

Currently, the Senate is preparing to vote on the matter and, if it is blocked, President Trump is expected to use a veto. Situations like this tend to change on a daily basis, but this is where it stands right now.

When analyzing a political event, it is important to take into account the situation, how political figures respond, how the general public responds, and how the situation evolves over the course of its relevancy.

Over the past weeks, there has been controversy over President Trump’s use of executive powers to declare a National Emergency over border wall funding. This has gotten national attention from both political figures and the general public. From curating pieces of information from different sources, it is interesting to see how people respond to this issue. As expected, this issue is a very partisan issue. Compared to other similar events, however, this issue is not as partisan. While most political figures are staying loyal to their affiliated parties, we have seen more flexibility than usual. Four GOP senators have voiced that they will not stand with the President in this vote, and this has not happened during this current term. The same can be said about the views of the general public. Most of those affiliated with a party, side with their party. Independents, however, lean to the side opposing the President.

We have seen a transition from lawsuits to votes to a possible veto over the last few weeks. While it is often difficult to identify the climate of a political debate, the always-changing elements of it will always be essential when attempting to analyze the situation.

A Brief Introduction to Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval

CLIR and its Motivation

Cross-lingual Information Retrieval is the task of retrieving relevant information when the document collection is written in a different language from the user query. Figure 1 below shows a typical architecture of a CLIR system. There are many situations where CLIR becomes essential because the information is not in the user’s native language.

Figure 1. Typical architecture of a CLIR system [1].

Translation Approaches

CLIR requires the ability to represent and match information in the same representation space even if the query and the document collection are in different languages. The fundamental problem in CLIR is to match terms in different languages that describe the same or a similar meaning. The strategy of mapping between different language representations is usually machine translation. In CLIR, this translation process can be in several ways.

  • Document translation [2] is to map the document representation into the query representation space, as illustrated in Figure 2.
  • Query translation [3] is to map the query representation into the document representation space, as illustrated in Figure 3.
  • Pivot language or Interlingua [4,5] is to map both document and query representations to a third space.

Figure 2. Document Translation for CLIR [8].

Figure 3. Query Translation for CLIR [8].

Query translation is generally considered the most appropriate approach.
The query is short and thus fast to translate than the document, and it is more flexible and allows more interaction with users if the user understands the translation. However, query translation can suffer from translation ambiguity, and this problem is even more obvious for the short query text due to the limited context. By contrast, document translation can provide more accurate translation thanks to richer contexts. Document translation also has the advantage that once the translated document is retrieved, the user can directly understand it, while the query translation still needs a post-retrieval translation. However, several experiments show that there is no clear evidence of one approach or the other using the same machine translation system [6], and the effectiveness is more dependent on the translation direction [7].

Conferences and Data Sets

There are several data sets available for CLIR. The first is the TREC (Text REtrieval Conference) organized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It starts with English to Spanish and then more languages are added including French, German, Italian, Dutch, Chinese, Arabic, and so on. The second data set is from CLEF (Cross-Language Experiment Forum). It focuses on European languages where the first experiments include English, German, French, and Italian documents using queries in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, and Finnish. The third one is the NTCIR series of workshops organized by the National Institute for Informatics (NII) of Japan. They emphasize Asian languages such as Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Mongolian.

Recent Progress

Very recently, cross-lingual word embeddings and neural network based information retrieval systems have become increasingly popular. Cross-lingual word embeddings can represent words in different languages in the same vector space by learning a mapping from monolingual embeddings even from no bilingual supervision. Neural information retrieval can build better representations for documents and queries and learn to rank directly from relevance labels. Here we briefly discuss three recent papers in this direction.

DUET

This is the paper Learning to Match using Local and Distributed Representations of Text for Web Search, WWW 2017 by Bhaskar Mitra, Fernando Diaz, and Nick Craswell.

In traditional information retrieval approaches, we build a local representation by discrete terms in the text. The relevance of a document is based on the exact matches of query terms in the body text. On the other hand, models such as latent semantic analysis and latent Dirichlet allocation learn low dimensional vector representations of terms. The query and the document are matched in the latent semantic space. In this work, they propose a document ranking model consisting of two separate deep neural network sub-models. The first sub-model matches the query and the document using a local representation of text, while the second learns a distributed representations for queries and documents before matching them.
The overall architecture is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. The DUET architecture [9].

MUSE

The second paper is Word translation without parallel data, ICLR 2018 by Alexis Conneau, Guillaume Lample, Marc’Aurelio Ranzato, Ludovic Denoyer, Hervé Jégou.

The paper study cross-lingual word embeddings where word embeddings for two languages are aligned in the same representation space (Figure 5). State-of-the-art methods for cross-lingual word embeddings rely on bilingual supervision such as dictionaries or parallel corpora. Recent studies try to alleviate the bilingual supervision need by using character-level information and iterative training.
However, they are not achieving performance on par with other supervised methods. This work proposes to learn a mapping to align monolingual word embedding spaces in an unsupervised way without any parallel data.
The experiment also demonstrates their method is even better than existing supervised methods on some language pairs.

Check out their implementation and Multilingual word Embeddings at MUSE.

Figure 5. Mapping between Word Embedding Spaces [10].

Unsupervised CLIR

The third paper is Unsupervised Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval using Monolingual Data Only, SIGIR 2018 by Robert Litschko, Goran Glavaš, Simone Paolo Ponzetto, Ivan Vulić.

They propose an unsupervised CLIR framework. To this end, they leverage shared cross-lingual word embedding spaces induced solely from monolingual corpora in two languages through an iterative process based on adversarial neural networks. The information retrieval is performed by calculating semantic similarity directly from the cross-lingual embedding space. This does not require any bilingual supervision or relevance labels of documents.

Awesome-CLIR

Finally, we created a curated list of resources for CLIR. Please check out Awesome-CLIR!

References

[1] Jian-Yun Nie. “Cross-language information retrieval”. In: Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies 3.1 (2010), pp. 1–125.

[2] Douglas W Oard and Paul Hackett. “Document translation for cross-language text retrieval at the University of Maryland”. In: TREC. Citeseer.1997, pp. 687–696

[3] Gao, Jianfeng, et al. “Improving query translation for cross-language information retrieval using statistical models.” Proceedings of the 24th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval. ACM, 2001.

[4] Ruiz, Miguel, et al. “CINDOR conceptual interlingua document retrieval: TREC-8 evaluation.” TREC. 1999.

[5] Kando, Kazuaki Kishida1 Noriko. “Hybrid Approach of Query and Document Translation with Pivot Language for Cross-Language Information Retrieval.”

[6] Franz, Martin, J. Scott McCarley, and Salim Roukos. “Ad hoc and multilingual information retrieval at IBM.” NIST special publication SP (1999): 157–168.

[7] McCarley, J. Scott. “Should we translate the documents or the queries in cross-language information retrieval?.” Proceedings of the 37th annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics on Computational Linguistics. Association for Computational Linguistics, 1999.

[8] http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/jaa/IS4200.12S/Handouts/cross_language.pdf

[9] https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/uploads/prod/2018/04/NeuralIR-Nov2017.pdf

[10] https://code.fb.com/ai-research/unsupervised-machine-translation-a-novel-approach-to-provide-fast-accurate-translations-for-more-languages/