Principles of Object-Oriented Design in Swift 2.2 – Christian Tietze – Medium

Understanding Uncle Bob’s Principles of Object-Oriented Design (which resulted in the SOLID principles) is super important to really grasp the use of design patterns (like MVVM) and architectural patterns (like VIPER). It’s like the grammar for crafting proper object-oriented software.

And now here’s the good news: there is a Swift playground (and Markdown file to read online) that illustrates all the principles by Uncle Bob: The Principles of OOD in Swift 2.2

Check it out, take notes, and keep the principles close to your heart. They may save your life someday.

via Worklog of Christian Tietze

RI exiles wish dearly to return

Features |April 26, 2006

| page: 20

The political turmoil in Indonesia in 1965 prevented hundreds of 
leftist Indonesians, who were abroad to study or attend 
conferences, from returning home. Many of these people live alone 
in Europe and many wish to regain their Indonesian citizenship.
The Jakarta Post’s Evi Mariani visited two exiles in the 
Netherlands to see what they have been doing.

Growing up in the time of revolution and ideological partiality did something to Fransisca Fanggidaj’s gaze and the way she speaks. The floating mass raised during the New Order would never have such qualities.

Sisca’s eyes are a fighter’s pair, whose sharp gaze has never worn away, despite 40 years of political exile. A former journalist for Sunday Courier, the Indonesian Communist Party’s Harian Rakjat, and later news agency Indonesian National Press Service, Sisca, 80, now lives alone in an apartment on the sixth floor in small town Zeist, 30 minutes bus ride from Utrecht, the Netherlands. 
“Living alone, the most important thing is being able to dial 101 for ambulance. I have never been in a situation where I have to call, but from what I heard, it’s fast,” Sisca says in her apartment scattered with books and papers.

“Sorry, it’s messy. The apartment is going to be renovated and 
we have to start packing our things now,” she says.

To survive in her retirement, Sisca relies on 800 euros a month the government provides for senior citizens and the unemployed. The amount is sufficient, but she has to be frugal. She translates articles and reads news mostly on Indonesia to fill her days.

Although she has been away from home since 1965, she still feels a strong connection with the homeland, which she helped fight for in the inception after 1945.

“I’ve been thinking a lot about Papua. I think they deserve independence. They have abundant resources but most of the financial benefit goes to Jakarta,” she says. “The problem cannot be solved only by the Papuans. All people 
have to stand up for Papuans’ rights,” Sisca says with deep conviction and vigorous ardor.

With the same ardor, Sisca voice her belief: Only communism is good for the people.

Her belief stems from her long involvement with several leftist organizations. Her first in 1945 was Indonesian Socialist Youths (Pesindo), some of whose members were involved in a communist revolt known as “Peristiwa Madiun 1948”.

“I was in the first generation at Marx House (a Marxist educational program). I received education in Madiun in 1946,” she said.

Sisca was not born into a proletarian family. In fact she was among the patricians at that time. Sisca’s father, Fanggidaj, who came from Rote, worked in Java as a Dutch government official. Because of her father’s occupation she had a Dutch education where she learned Dutch and English. Her language skills enabled here to work as one of the international relations officials in 
Pesindo, which in 1947 sent her as a head of delegates to an international congress in India and to the first World Youth Festival in Prague.

Her first husband, Sukarno, was among the 11 people shot dead in the wake of the foiled revolt. “I was also registered as a member in Gerwani (the Indonesian Women’s Movement), but I was more busy with my job as a 
journalist so I was not really active in Gerwani,” she said.

In September 1965, a week before the Sept. 30 tragedy, she was sent to Chile to attend a meeting of the International Organization of Journalists.

At that time she was 40 and had remarried a journalist, Supriyo. She already had seven children, the youngest 1.5 years old.

“In Halim (Perdanakusuma airport), my second child hugged me and said, ‘Mom, please don’t go away long’, and I promised I would not,” Sisca said.

It turned out they only met 38 years later in 2003.

“My youngest child didn’t recognize me,” Sisca said. In the first 20 years of her exile, she couldn’t even hear anything from Indonesia and vice versa. “I was still in Chile when I heard from people that the government had revoked my passport. The announcement was aired on Voice of America radio,” she said.

Without citizenship, Sisca was taken to the People’s Republic of China by fellow journalists from the communist country, which she called Tiongkok.

For 20 years the Chinese government allowed her to stay as a political exile. “But I couldn’t send any letters from China. It would have been dangerous for my family. The government jailed my husband for 17 years in Salemba. So my sister took care of my children. She said, ‘please don’t send any letters from China’,” Sisca said.

During the New Order regime, intelligence agencies often ran an operation called litsus (an abbreviation of penelitian khusus, meaning special examination), on people and members of their families suspected to have links with communism or subversive actions.

“I couldn’t stand hearing nothing from my family. My friends suggested I move to Europe. I can speak Dutch and I once spent a year during my childhood in this country, so I chose Holland,” she said.

In 1985, Sisca, then 61, moved to the Netherlands. Making a phone call to her family was among the first things to do in the Netherlands.

It was the first time she had made contact with her children since 1965.

“My eldest child answered the phone,” she said.

After saying that mother had called, they went speechless. “I had so much to say. But I went speechless, and she did too. And then we cried,” Sisca said.

In 2000, President Abdurrahman “Gus Dur” Wahid issued a decree for reconciliation with those who faced difficulties going home. “We (exiled people) welcomed the idea. We want our Indonesian citizenship back. We met with then Minister of Justice Yusril Ihza Mahendra at the Indonesian Embassy in The Hague. But afterwards, we never heard anything anymore,” she said, 

However, Gus Dur’s decree paved the way home for some people. The decree suggests that it is safe for them to come home and meet their families. They can apply for a two-month tourist visa to visit Indonesia.

“The problem is money. I cannot work here because of my age. I did only volunteer work. I have to save money from my allowance,” she said.

In 2003, after saving her allowance money, she managed to fly to Jakarta. She spent two months with her children and grandchildren. During the family time she had to explain her reasons for leaving her children that long.

“Of course two months were not enough. I want more time with them. Now my only concern is how to get them to accept me.”

On Simulated Existence

By now, you should have heard about this, but here’s a link.

We are living in a computer simulation, Elon Musk says
Elon Musk has said that there is only a "one in billions" chance that we're not living in a computer simulation. Our…

It’s really quite simple: it doesn’t matter one iota whether we live inside a simulation or not.

Many years ago, as a freshman in college, I took an Epistemology course because I was very much interested in philosophy. To put it simply, epistemology is the philisophic study of how we come to know things. I mention this because one of the most basic epistemic questions is how we know we live in reality or whether we’re just brains in jars receiving neural stimuli to give us the impression that we’re alive.

From “Robocop 2”

This question was part of a basic exercise to start a dialogue around how we know what we know. In general, we humans learn about our surroundings by using our 5 senses. But our senses just provide the necessary electrical inputs to tell the brain what’s happening around it, whether something is a friend or foe.

Given this, however, it is entirely possible that there is some technology out there that can provide our brains the precise electrical signals, in the most precise way, to help us experience the world around us as we believe it to exist today. Our brains, plugged into this technology, could receive everything it needs and we would never really know the difference.

From “The Matrix”

I mean, if your brain received all the proper signals that you were eating a steak, how could you possibly know if you were or weren’t actually eating it? You couldn’t, and you wouldn’t.

In many ways, the simulation that Elon Musk described is actually quite primitive. In the interview, he described the advancement of graphical technology as the marker that the simulation is real. But in a truly advanced simulation, we would not need our eyes to be deceived by advanced graphics if our brains can receive the stimulus directly.

So why doesn’t any of it matter?

Imagining whether we are or are not living inside a simulation is completely immaterial to our existence.

First, we who may exist inside the simulation could never truly know if the simulation exists. We would have no way of actually proving that the simulation is out there, and we are simply not equipped to understand the broader universe that could surround this simulation. Is an ant living its life in North America aware of the many billions of people that live in China?

Second, assuming the simulation was real, and someone could figure out that it exists, how would you know whether knowing about the simulation is just another aspect of living inside the simulation? If you were just a brain in a jar receiving stimulus, how would you be able to determine if knowing you’re a brain in a jar wasn’t just more stimulus from the simulation?

Third, who created this simulation and to what purpose? It is akin to trying to prove or disprove the existence of God. Any real discussion or debate about who and why would devolve into circular arguments with no resolution, and worse, no further clarity.

Lastly, being inside a simulation doesn’t change how you should live your life. Even a simulated life should be lived to its fullest potential. As a brain in a jar, why not make the most out of the stimulus you receive? Make the most of the time you get while you have it, even if it is just electrical impulses sent to your brain.

Epistemic questions remain

In the end, the question still remains. It is still entirely possible that we are all just living within some extensive simulation with an unknown creator with an unknown purpose. Or perhaps it is just you, dear reader, who is the only real person alive, while I am just a clever AI routine who put this here to leave a seed of doubt in your mind about whether or not this is all just some clever fabrication. You’ll never know…

“If You’re Reading This It’s Too Late,” and the changing face of Hip Hop’s brightest star.

“If you’re reading this its too late,” stands as an ultimate assertion of cultural dominance. The biggest artist in the game shamelessly flexing on peers and detractors alike. There’s absolutely no secret: Drake is the best rapper in the world — IYRTITL was just him letting the world in on the fact that he knows.

Nearly half a year after “If You’re Reading This It’s Too Late’s release, the album has only grown in momentum; building on an unprecedented opening week of (624,000 units sold) the album has carried all the way to certified platinum status (with over 1 million units sold.) Making it the lone record to go platinum in what has been one of music’s strongest years in recent memory.

(Ps. if you were wondering that’s 4/4 for Drake, as all four of his previous albums have been granted the same platinum status.)

In hindsight, the release of the album was unprecedented — a royal anomaly, practically unseen in rap, (especially by the undeniable #1.) There indeed had been noise concerning a potential winter mixtape release from the 6 God, but information on it was scarce — being completely honest, there really was no information on it at all, until Toronto Raptor Demar Derozan accidentally mentioned knowledge of it during a short interview with NBA T.V months prior to the album’s release. Drake obviously inspired by the groundbreaking rollout of Beyoncé’s album, had literally no press leading up to the mixtape/album’s release. Not even an acknowledgement of its creation. Nothing whatsoever.

In a day and age where it’d become increasingly commonplace for artists to spend weeks, months, even years on their album promo process, what was to come from Drake would open a lot of eyes. And very quickly work to change the operation of an industry created and powered by million dollar labels that for years served no real purpose other than a crutch; making up for uninspired artistry, and imposing upon the uncalculated business that it’s so often paired with.

The release also carried the additional burden of many wondering if Drake’s counting IYRTITL as an album and not a mixtape could be directly attributed to his wanting out of Birdman’s Cash Money record deal. A sentiment that only intensified for the boy after finding himself in the crossfire of the spiralling legal and street battle that would see itself play out amid the well documented tensions between Birdman and Lil Wayne.

That being said — On February 13, (a date now fondly known as 6mas, ha) a cryptic tweet, accompanied with a link to the album, was sent out of the blue from Drake’s twitter account.

The album was here. It was officially on.

The 17 song project initially understood as nothing more than a throw away from the OVO camp, very quickly became much more, largely due to the undying international fandom that followed its release.

Armed with a satirically suggestive title, Aubrey had the game at his beck and call; handily managing to introduce an entire culture to a new way of doing business.

What was given to the world was a 17-song dedication to Drake’s city, mother, detractors, women, and how he’s the greatest there is. The albums release/rollout gave life to the “new age of artistry,” and a marked a real D-day in the perpetual artist-label battle for creative control. A battle that has plagued the industry since the birth of the big-business supported style of selling and distributing music.

More specifically — for a community that had for years found themselves specifically imposed upon by labels and the billion-dollar infrastructure that they support, “IYRTITL’s” success meant that much more. Things like the long monotonous album promo process were no longer necessary, and Drake’s success officially legitimized this fact to all.

Creative freedom had been restored; Drake had successfully given control back to artists, whether he knew it or not.

Throw the semantics of business away, believe in your art, your fans, and let the product speak for itself. Now of course, not every artist is Drake, and not everyone can do what he did, but there are levels and equivalencies to everything. And in artists like Kendrick Lamar, Earl Sweatshirt, Vince Staples, D’angelo, Rihanna, etc, we see an obvious, and quickly growing impact in the way quality music is beginning to be delivered to the world.

Now let’s get into the record — On it you hear the voice of a 28-year-old man comfortably accepting of his exalted position atop the rap throne. A voice confidently boomin over instrumentals that make you want to do everything from: call your ex, to go buy a new Raptors jersey; mob with ya woes, spend time with your mother, and participate in the overall jiggyest of activities.

Quite simply, rap’s premier hit maker did what he does best: deliver hits. A feat that we should at this point be anything but surprised about.

He kicks the album off with a battle cry of sorts, (of course in a very uniquely Drake, r&b kind of way.) Legend, is the culmination of a near decade of dominance, a feat fairly unprecedented; especially for a rapping Jewish kid from Canada.

“Oh my god, oh my god, if I die I’m a legend.”

What followed the opening song was everything from classic New Orleans bounce on “Energy,” the probable song of the year with “Know Yourself,” drunken freestyles on “Madonna,” dedications to his city on “6 God,” “6 Man”, and “Jungle,” and a loving ballad for Toronto and mother on “You and the 6”.

Know Yourself: serving as the song of the year, reserves position as a certified banger; crossing nearly all demographical boundaries, and probably stands alone as the song of the album. Madonna, of course was the seed that planted tree that turned into the now notorious Drake/Madonna Coachella kiss (and the song holds an ironically special place in pop culture history because of it.)

IYRTITL’s three features include a full song “Wednesday Night Interlude,” by the probable heir to Drake’s OVO throne, Partynextdoor, and another by him on Preach. It includes a verse from Drake’s self proclaimed “Idol,” and the man many credit with helping mold the stardom now so closely associated with the Toronto rapper, Lil Wayne on “Used To”, and a guest spot from G.O.O.D Music upstart Travis Scott on “Company”.

With this project Drake officially stands completely alone. There are no longer any peers: he’s in a league of his own, and catching up to that of his heroes at a blistering pace.

And scarily enough, it was only the warm-up for his actual album.

“Views From The 6” is the record he’s been working on since 2014, and will be the official follow-up to his last full-length album “Nothing Was The Same”.

All in all — Aubrey still has his occasional moments being the simp everyone seems to so desperately want him to be. But for the most part “IYRTITL” introduced the world to a new and improved Drake, an angry Drake, a man pulling no punches, and one we’ve never seen before. It serves as his coming of age moment, and will forever remain synonymous with the evolution of a legend. One perfectly comfortable in being the best,

and if you don’t agree, Fu*% You.

Sincerely, The Boy.